What is an angiography and how is it done?
An angiography is a radiological exam focused on the blood vessels, different from the ones taken on other kinds of tissues of the human body.
In order to obtain a clear image, contrast agents are needed. The standard is represented by a fluid containing iodine, but it is also possible to use Carbon Dioxide, both alone or in a complementary approach.
As a matter of fact, sometimes CO₂ is the only viable solution to perform an angiographic exam, since iodine can be harmful in certain patients. There have been even cases in which people were not examined because they could not sustain iodine injections.
Something about CO₂ angiography: Why should I prefer it?

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a 100% biocompatible gas, which means it can’t cause nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, or allergic reactions. Moreover, there is not a maximum dosage of gas that can be used in one single procedure; so, you can use all the CO2 you need to finish it. The only limitation suggested by the literature is not to inject more than 100 ml each injection, which is also the maximum dosage allowed with Angiodroid.

The use of Iodine as a contrast media is not advisable for all patients, since some of them can experience several issues, such as allergy to iodinated contrast media, renal failures, diabetic diseases, and hypertension. 

High creatinine rate and low Egfr are two indicators that give us information about the renal function of the patient. The use of CO2 instead of ICM, is very useful to reduce the contrast induced nephropathy risk.

If you want to know more about Carbon Dioxide Angiography or its benefits, just click here.

Which features of CO2 are important?

Since, CO2 is a gas, it displaces blood and doesn’t mix with it, as the Iodine does.
An important property is its low viscosity: CO2 is 400 times less viscous than Iodine, and this property allows the gas to pass through tiny holes and vessels.
Talking about solubility, CO2 is 20 times more soluble than Oxygen, which means that it rapidly dissolves in blood. Then it is expelled from the body via the lungs, which means no kidney stress at all.

What is CIN RISK?

The Contrast Induced Nephropathy is the impairment of the renal function due to the iodinated contrast media administration. What should be stressed here, is that the patients, who experience a CIN must undergo to one- or two-days hemodialysis sessions, or in rare cases, even longer ones. This is what can be avoided by using carbon dioxide. Today, CIN is the third most common cause of renal failure for patients worldwide.

Why CO₂ Angiography is better with an automatic delivery system?
Until the early 2010s, the injection of CO2  was done only manually: the doctor injected CO2 at a pressure that was too high for the patient, causing pain and discomfort. 
This is why the method was not standardized and diffused at first, something that has been changing since the Angiodroid technology started to be used. 
The popularity of this method is rapidly and steadily increasing, as shown by national and international guidelines recommending the use of automated CO2 injection and by papers  and certifications  written all over the world, or even by the statements of the physicians who fell in love with Angiodroid.
Where CO2 Can Be Used as Contrast Agent?

The CO2 can be used in all the arteries below the diaphragm, but not in the districts above the diaphragm, and it can be used in the venous system also. The use of the CO2 is not advisable in those patients who suffer from a severe pulmonary insufficiency or pulmonary AV malformation.