Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a 100% biocompatible gas, which means it can’t cause nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, or allergic reactions. Moreover, there is not a maximum dosage of gas that can be used in one single procedure; so, you can use all the CO2 you need to finish it. The only limitation suggested by the literature is not to inject more than 100 ml each injection, which is also the maximum dosage allowed with Angiodroid.
The use of Iodine as a contrast media is not advisable for all patients, since some of them can experience several issues, such as allergy to iodinated contrast media, renal failures, diabetic diseases, and hypertension.
High creatinine rate and low Egfr are two indicators that give us information about the renal function of the patient. The use of CO2 instead of ICM, is very useful to reduce the contrast induced nephropathy risk.
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Since, CO2 is a gas, it displaces blood and doesn’t mix with it, as the Iodine does.
An important property is its low viscosity: CO2 is 400 times less viscous than Iodine, and this property allows the gas to pass through tiny holes and vessels.
Talking about solubility, CO2 is 20 times more soluble than Oxygen, which means that it rapidly dissolves in blood. Then it is expelled from the body via the lungs, which means no kidney stress at all.
The Contrast Induced Nephropathy is the impairment of the renal function due to the iodinated contrast media administration. What should be stressed here, is that the patients, who experience a CIN must undergo to one- or two-days hemodialysis sessions, or in rare cases, even longer ones. This is what can be avoided by using carbon dioxide. Today, CIN is the third most common cause of renal failure for patients worldwide.
The CO2 can be used in all the arteries below the diaphragm, but not in the districts above the diaphragm, and it can be used in the venous system also. The use of the CO2 is not advisable in those patients who suffer from a severe pulmonary insufficiency or pulmonary AV malformation.