The following section shows information extracted from the scientific literature on carbon dioxide angiography. See References below.
Therapeutic Indications To The Use Of CO2 In Angiography
The Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR, measured in mL/min/1.73m2) is an indicator of renal function, and represents the most important clinical parameter in evaluating the CO2 use as contrast media in angiography. Other risk factors must be taken into consideration, i.e.: Albuminuria which influences the therapeutic indications.
Why the use Angiodroid The CO2 Injector is recommended in particular procedures
EVAR procedures - usually time consuming, performed on elderly people with already compromised renal function cardiovascular risks and comorbidities and operators - may need multiple acquisitions with a consequent important use of iodinated contrast medium. Thanks to the use of Angiodroid The CO2 Injector, it is possible to limit the total amount of the iodine to few millilitres
Throughout the use of Angiodroid the CO2 injector it is possible to perform selective injections with regulated amount of both volume and pressure which allow operators to visualize all the peripheral district with an accurate visualization of both arteries and veins.
The low viscosity of the CO2 can provide complementary information to standard iodinated contrast media, hence helping operators in the decision-making process.
CO2 can be applied during phlebography or interventions on the fistulae of already dialyzed patients. The use of CO2 would ensure a total preservation of the residual renal function of the patients.
The localization of the perfect site for the portal-hepatic vein connection can be facilitated using Angiodroid The CO2 Injector during Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS). In fact, the low viscosity of the CO2 allows the counter flow spread from the portal vein to the hepatic vein, moreover reducing the CIN risk and preserving the patient’s renal function.
Thanks to the low viscosity of the CO2 the detection of type II endoleaks is easy, safe and more efficient than the standard technique.
In a study conducted by Mascoli et al. on 21 patients undergoing EVAR procedure, CEUS and ICM-Angiography showed a poor agreement (Cohen’s 𝐾: 0.35) while CEUS and CO2-Angiography showed a substantial agreement (Cohen’s 𝐾: 0.65) for type II endoleak detection. A perfect agreement between CEUS and both ICM-Angiography and CO2-Angiography was observed for type I/III endoleak (Cohen’s 𝐾: 1).
Angiodroid The CO2 Injector facilitate the hemorrhage detection as the automated CO2 delivery creates characteristics bubbles that, joined to the CO2 low viscosity, privilege low pressure paths and therefore are able to reveal the bleeding region.
The use of CO2 as a Contrast Agent has been demonstrated to provide considerable advantages in many types of intervention and in different fields, i.e. Vasculas Surgery, Interventional Radiology and Interventional Angiology.
Carbon Dioxide is fully biocompatible for the human body and can be injected into any lumen structure below the diaphragm (arterial, venous, biliary tract, abscesses, fistulas). All patients undergoing a peripheral angiography procedure can benefice from the Carbon Dioxide use, and it is especially indicated for patients with renal failure, diabetes, intolerance to iodinated contrast media, and creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dl.